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Professor h.c. CBB - Dr. Carl Bruno Bloemertz 


A screen is an area that has holes through which one material by press-out can that are smaller than those holes. The screen that is used in the screen printing process, is a fine-mesh gauze, today mostly woven from synthetic fibres, which is in a frame of wood or metal clamped tight as a drum. The fine screen openings, the ink is forced through an area underneath it. In our case on paper. At the points at which the screen is made opaque, such as a paint, the color can not be pressed on the paper underneath it. That is, in the otherwise smooth paint surface caused by the otherwise open screen onto the paper looks printed as has been pressed, is it any color, but the exposed paper that reflects the shape and structure of the covered paint match exactly. This is the basic principle of the screen printing process. If we print through the screen an image, text, a drawing on paper, then we only need to draw into the screen with the screen closing color or, as the screen printer calls it , a screen filler. Then the painted or written in printing is to see A1S negative on the surface, because yes there is no color on the paper. Unlike other print techniques (etching, woodcut, linocut), where - like a stamp - will hold the ink from the plate to the paper, the screen has the advantage that it is always printed the right way and not reversed. The color is usually the screen-printed by a squeegee - the timber is an elongated, the longitudinal edge with a special rubber strip provided (so much like a windshield wiper). This doctor is poured into the filter color drawn uniformly under pressure across the screen from top to bottom and thus transferred to the paper underneath. To a very precise drawing in the screen have to be today in regulation color drawings of the artist to paint by him from the draft that is created in this case on paper, "pulled out". That is, he has every structure of its image, which has its own color, or even other brightness level, be removed from the draft and thus represent isolated. This is very time consuming and subtle work is mostly done by hand, either by revealing the structures or cut it out. For color image en Template can also be the photographic technology. The Color Guide excerpt everything, of course "the hand of the artist" can be seen as an advantage and broadcasting feel stronger. But he also makes use of often technical implementation of the photo, after making the color separations by hand or it cuts out a series of so-called large slides - as negative or positive - of the lots with a drawing pen or scissors. The cut-structures on a transparent sheet-size exact "assembled" in the place (that’s ar glued) to which they will later appear in the image. If an image has multiple colors - such as the present paper "rolled" into one of three versions of 15 colors - then have to be prepared in accordance with many separations, because you can only have one color press through the sieve, if m of no hodgepodge wants them. But to bring the color separations in the screen itself to print-ready en sieve, a method has been developed to ensure a safe and clean pressure: The screen is in darkness, so a dark room, with a light-sensitive gelatin layer coated and dried. This layer tm leg to now, the transparent film with the mounted color separation. Now, set with a sophisticated method of color separation by vacuum pressed onto the screen and exposed to UV light. The gelatine layer has the property that is to be water resistant with UV-light exposed areas. Since the set with negative air pressure can be approached on the screen pressed color separation at the points of its structure, no UV light to the gelatine layer of the screen, they remain in water bodies. In the subsequent spraying of the screen with a powerful jet of water (it is called "wash-out"), logically, the water-soluble body structure is washed out, so that the screen remains transparent at this point and the color can be pushed through. About 15 color separations must therefore also 15 screens are so prepared. This is a very extensive work associated with high costs and prepare everything before the actual printing. The pressures created t a range of skills and facilities. In addition to the seven you need a printing table, ranging from the simplest table without much technology to fully automatic printing machine. Important and therefore worth striving for is definitely a suction device, which the paper is printed on, during the printing process - the squeegees - to hold and can not move. Glue the paper on the table with a special adhesive is also possible, but very annoying, time consuming and detrimental to good papers. Then should the table have a mount for the screen frame to which the Lower flaps of the screen on the recently launched ("scale") paper and re-folding, so that one can take away the moist sheet without damage back to him to put it in the "drying rack". An important requirement in multi-color screen printing on the go-to "fitting accuracy is. One can easily made before, that a number of color planes or lines. That will each represent an image, if not exactly be at the point where they should be, can change the image beyond recognition, interfere in any case act - (another thing is if the artist wants to achieve by shifts of certain structures, special effects, but this is not to be discussed). It concluded several imperatives: 1 The screen must be exactly "set up" to be. This is achieved by that being on the printing table nearest the original drawing is applied (with two tape strips for example), the sieve with the structure laid over it, the structure in the sieve is placed exactly with the corresponding one of the original image to the exact cover and then immediately adamant in tightening the tilting of the printing table is. 2. While this procedure is the suction, so that much of the original template can move. To "Appendix" the print paper sheet, are generally now 3 "investors BRANDS" glued to the printing table (mostly on the narrow edge of the sheet a brand and to the wide side also exactly at the margin then two more of these cardboard or plastic strip ). These positioning marks you have fixed the exact position for creating the print sheets of paper and start the first printing can start. 3. A precise "STAND" already the picture elements (= color separations ") to reach the screen, is with the copy of each color separation outside the picture, but possibly in the vicinity of a so-called" copied PASSER CROSS "with. As in all seven of the yoke cross in the same place sits (it does usually two registration marks - above and below), it is used for quick and secure set of the screen is of great importance, if not the only factor, since "work", the screen can, it is as a fabric, even with the best quality, some expansions, contractions and shifts - if ever so slight - exposed, so that the printer is also the accounting contribution s must be after the drying process is completed the first structure on the leaves of the "SUPPORT". with the pressure, the next structure to begin this means to work. again exactly it up, mixing of paints, printing and drying at hand pressure and the participation of two persons, one of the doctor out and one of the port and then taken away and. in the "DRY-HORDE" sets can be completed in a few days in good training, a fifteen-colored sheet This applies only to print all take very complex en Preparations -.. next to the really artistic activity - usually a lot more time. These problems are as follows: color picker, color mixing, paint overlap and thus color change s, proofs (until exactly the right shade is), changes in the individual color separations on screen, which will only result in printing, additional structures and much m ore With colorful. screen printing it is advisable to apply a so-called pressure score {print schedule). The colors used are determined by it. You need a sufficient amount for printing the entire edition premixed are available, as remixing not only time consuming but not too often unsatisfactory fails. The order of the different printing programs is not indifferent, since the last printed color changes when underneath it, in most cases. Particularly striking is in transparent colors. your specific application an excellent 'artistic medium discoloration highest refinement is to achieve what the pressure often to fascinating possibilities for color schemes out. Charmingly, it may also be a motive to implement in different color combinations, as can be seen that here be presented, Journal "rolled" the two scores the printing processes can be. range of screen printing. Working with impasto order, use of special masks of deformable metal screens (as copper), pressure on curved surfaces, solvents, cleaning agents, exposure method and so on;. a huge industry that this technology has taken the world's artistic screen printing only a small part of the whole, but makes an excellent position one, especially in the U.S., but also the Nordic countries and France. Great names are associated with the printing process, which according to the latest findings but should not be invented by the Chinese.

CBB January 1981

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