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DESCRIPTION OF SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PAINTING TECHNIQUES
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LITHOGRAPH
 

The drawing is being painted on a limestone slab with chalk which contains
fat. The parts to be printed lateron are being prepared, so that they reject
fat (mostly through the effect of acid). The drawing is washed off, only the
fat background remains.

Printing process:
- The stone is moistened, the fatty parts reject the water.
- The stone is being  rolled in fat containing colour which sticks at the
fatty parts and is being rejected by the moist parts of the stone.
- Print paper is being put on the stone.
- Pressure is being produced in the lithographic press.

Coloured prints are possible to produce, however, one requires a special
stone for each colour.

 

ETCHING

A  zinc or copper plate is being coated with an acid-resistant resin mass
(caustic background). With a sharp steel needle the drawing is being applied
until the metal is uncovered. In the acid bath the exposed parts are being
etched and the longer one leaves it in there, the deeper the lines get. The
deep lines absorb the colour in the print procedure. The pressure is being
applied with a hand press.

 

HELIOGRAVURE 

Procedure to the production of etching on copperplates for the
hand-press deep-printing (copper-print).
At this procedure, the in contrast to the original-graphic
proceeds, how> copperplate or> etching, on photographic
basis is founded, becomes a positive on chrome gelatine-pigment-paper
copies. This pigmentopike becomes on a with melt asphalt-dust
overcast copperplate transfers, the subsequent according to the thickness of the
at the washing out of emerging gelatine-relief, differently is etched.

 

WIPED INK DRAWINGS 

Ink drawings are often wiped with a wet brush in a one- or multi-coloured
fashion, i.e. the painted colour is being "wiped" with a wet brush. To wipe
the ink with a wet brush creates the deepening of the shadows and produces
picturesque light effects.
 

 

WATERCOLOURS 

Painting with glazing water colours allows the paper or parchment shine
through:

- If one layer of colour is to overlap another the first layer has to be
dry.
- Wet-In-Wet-painting with a very soft blending of shades of colour.
 

 

GOUACHE

Painting with covering water colours which are mixed with white and have a
resin cement added. The layer of colour is therefore quite thick and turns
brighter and brittle after drying. Similar to painting with pastel colours.

 

WOODCUT 

The drawing is transferred to a smoothly planed wooden board  (long board).
The parts that should not be printed are cut out with a knife or an
engraving tool. The outlines remain standing erect and are coloured with
printer's ink. The pressure is being applied with a hand press or through
scouring and brushing.
 

LINO-CUT

Same procedure as the woodcut.
 
  

THE COLD-NEEDLE

In contrast to an engraving the employment of the cold needle does not
remove chips from the metal plate, but creates through the pressure of the
tool the lines and different traces of the grating while deepening with
ridges on both sides.
 

AQUATINTS  (Etching) 

On a metal plate finest colophonium dust is being melted. The plate is being
granulated after the etching process has taken place. The drawing is not
being scraped out but gradually regained through uncovering and repeated
etching. Brightness and darkness of the surfaces are dependent on the depth
of the etching.
 
  

(SILK) SCREEN PRINT (SERIGRAPHY) 

With the help of a rubber squeeze tool paint is being applied through a
tissue (mostly gauze) fixed on a framework  onto the paper. In order to
produce the chosen drawing the parts that should not printed are being
covered up, whereas the other parts remain colour permeable. The procedure
mostly used is:

- A gelatine layer sensitive to light is applied to the material and exposed
to the light. The parts not exposed will dissolve after the development.
- The drawing is transferred with a fat pencil onto the tissue,  the screen
printer is covered with water soluble glue, which is being rejected by the
drawing which contains fat.
- With glue or lacquer templates are being glued onto the material.
 

LINE-ETCHING

Cliche to the rendering of line-drawings, high pressure-procedure (into the typography since start of 19. Century).Becomes frequent confuses with the etching, if at these only-lines etches becomes (deep-pressure-procedure). Strichätzungen can as montage-parts in the mix both etching with uses becomes (additional [Prägeeffekt]!).

 

MONOTYPE 

A flat printing procedure which only allows to create one print. Basically
two technical procedures are possible:

1. The picture is being drawn or painted onto a non-sucking, even and
totally smooth panel (glass, pressed wood, plastic) and is printed on an
absorbing sheet of paper while wet.

2. A non-sucking, even and totally smooth panel is being covered in paint
with a roller, absorbing paper is being put on top and a drawing is made.
The colour is being transferred onto the paper where the drawing is made.

Material:  lino print ink, absorbent, well moistened but not dripping
drawing paper.
 
 

Special literature information:

1.  25 Lithographic Techniques, 52 pages by Horst Heckmüller. Publisher:
Wulff & Co, Dortmund, DM 5.65.

2.  Etching Techniques: The Copper Etching, 115 pages by Siegfried E. Fuchs.
Publisher: Aurel Bongers, Recklinghausen, DM 38.
 

General literature information:

1.  The big Ravenburger Book for Hobby Painters, Painting, Techniques and
Terms by Ursula Kaiser, 420 pages,  Publisher: Otto Maier, Ravensburg, DM
35.

2.  Drawings and Sketches, Paperback by Sepp Harnest, 96 pages.
Publisher: Hallwag, Bern and Stutgart. 

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